Sunday, 8 September 2013

Social Science Notes

Q.1Where wasthe earliest kind of print technoloy developed?
The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea.
Q2. Briefly describe the earliest kind of print technology that developed in the world
The earliest kind of print technology was based on manual labourie hand printin
From AD 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented
there – against the inked surface of woodblocks.
As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese
‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side.
Superbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy, the beauty of
Q4. What is Calligraphy?
The art of beautiful and stylized writing is known as Calligraphy
Q5.Which country was the major producer of printed material? Why?
The imperial state in China was, for a very long time, the major producer of printed
China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil
service examinations.
Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of
the imperial state.
From the sixteenth century, the number of examination candidates went up and that
increased the volume of print.
China – Printing of Books
Q6 How did the uses of print diversify in China
By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print
diversified. Print was no longer used just by scholar officials
Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information.
Reading increasingly became a leisure activity.
The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of
literary masterpieces, and romantic plays.
Rich women began to read, and many women began publishing their poetry and plays.
Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives.
Western printing techniques and mechanical presses were imported in the late nineteenth
century as Western powers established their
outposts in China.
Shanghai became the hub of the new print culture, catering to the Western-style schools.
From hand printing there was now a gradual shift to mechanical printing.
Print in Japan
Q7.Who introduced print in Japan ?
Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around
AD 768-770.
Q8 Name the oldest book to be printed in Japan.
The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing
six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
Briefly describe the various kinds of print used in Japan.
Pictures were printed on textiles, playing cards and paper money.
In medieval Japan, poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were
cheap and abundant.
Q.9 What were the interesting publishing practices of the late 18th century?
Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices.
In the late eighteenth century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as
Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings depicted an elegant urban culture, involving
artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
Libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed material of various types –
books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony, flower arrangements,
proper etiquette, cooking and famous places.
Q.10 What were the factors that helped the rise of print culture in Europe?
In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
Paper made possible the production of manuscripts, carefully written by scribes.
Then, in 1295, Marco Polo, a great explorer, returned to Italy after many years of
exploration in China. China already had the technology of woodblock printing. Marco
Polo brought this knowledge back with him.
Now Italians began producing books with woodblocks, and soon the technology spread to
other parts of Europe.
Luxury editions were still handwritten on very expensive vellum, meant for aristocratic
circles and rich monastic libraries which scoffed at printed books as cheap vulgarities.
Merchants and students in the university towns bought the cheaper printed copies.
Q11.What is vellum?
A parchment made from the skins of animals.
Q12 How were luxury editions in Europe printed ?
Luxury editions were handwritten on very expensive vellum meant for aristocratic people
and rich monastic libraries.
Q13 Who were the people who brought cheaper copies?
Merchants and students in the university towns bought cheaper printed copies.
Demand For Books
Q14 What steps were taken by the booksellers to meet the increasing demand for books?
As the demand for books increased, booksellers all over Europe began exporting books to
many different countries. Book fairs were held at different places.
Production of handwritten manuscripts was also organised in new ways to meet the
expanded demand.
Scribes or skilled handwriters were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential
patrons but increasingly by booksellers as well. More than 50 scribes often worked for
one bookseller.
Q.15 What were the limitations of Manuscripts?
the production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever-increasing demand
for books.
Copying was an expensive, laborious and time-consuming business.
Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read
Their circulation remained limited. With the growing demand for books,
woodblock printing gradually became more and more popular.
By the early fifteenth century, woodblocks were being widely used in Europe to
print textiles, playing cards, and religious pictures with simple, brief texts.
Q16. Explain the term Print Revolution
The shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution after he
invention of the printing press by Gutenberg
Q17. Which was the first book to be printed by Gutenberg
The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three
years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was fast production.
Q18 Write a short note on Gutenberg
Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agricultural estate. From his
childhood he had seen wine and olive presses.
Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also
acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets.
Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation.
The olive press provided the model for the printing press, and moulds were used for
casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet.
By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system. The first book he printed was the Bible. About
180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the
time this was fast production.
Q.19 What were the features of the printed books ?
Printed books at first closely resembled the written manuscripts in appearance and layout.
The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were
In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page.
Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the
This shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution.
Q20 What was the impact of the print revolution in Europe?
A new way of producing books; it transformed the lives of people, changing their
relationship to information and knowledge, and with institutions and authorities.
It influenced popular perceptions and opened up new ways of looking at things
Printing reduced the cost of books. The time and labour required to produce each book
came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.
Books flooded the market, reaching out to an ever-growing readership.
Earlier books could be read by only a small number of people particularly the elite as the
number of literates in Europe was very low till the 20 th century
Publishers started publishing popular ballads folk tales with beautiful pictures and
illustrations .These were then sung at village gatherings Knowledge was transferred
orally. People collectively heard a story, or saw a performance . Thus a hearing and
reading public became intermingled.
Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of
debate and discussion.
Even those who disagreed with established authorities could now print and circulate their
ideas. Eg MartinLuther was a German monk, priest professor and church reformer. In 1517
he wrote 95 thesis and openely criticized the rituals and practices of the Roman catholic
church.A printed copy of his thesis was posted on the church door at Wittenberg. It
challenged the church to debate his ideas. Lutherts writings were immediately produced in
large numbersand were read widely. This led to division within the church and the
beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
Print and popular religious literature stimulated many distinctive individual
interpretations of faith even among little-educated working people.
In the sixteenth century, Manocchio, a miller in Italy, began to read books that were
available in his locality.
He reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation
that enraged the Roman Catholic Church.
When the Roman Church began its inquisition to repress heretical ideas, Manocchio
was hauled up twice and ultimately executed.
The Roman Church, troubled by such effects of popular readings and questionings of
faith, imposed severe controls over publishers and booksellers and began to maintain an
Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.
Q.21 What was the implication of Print Revolution on Religion?
In 1517, the religious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticising many
of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
A printed copy of this was posted on a church door in Wittenberg.
It challenged the Church to debate his ideas.
Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely. This
lead to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
The Reading Mania
Q22.Why is it that in the the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries literacy rates went up in
most parts of Europe?
Churches of different denominations set up schools in villages, carrying literacy to
peasants and artisans. By the end of the eighteenth century, in some parts of Europe
literacy rates were as high as 60 to 80 per cent.
As literacy and schools spread in European countries, there was a virtual reading mania.
People wanted books to read and printers produced books in ever increasing numbers.
Q.23 What were the new forms of Popular Literature prevalent in Europe?(any 4)
New forms of popular literature appeared in print, targeting new audiences.
Booksellers employed pedlars who roamed around villages, carrying little books for sale.
There were almanacs or ritual calendars, along with ballads and folktales. But other
forms of reading matter, largely for entertainment, began to reach ordinary readers as
In England, penny chapbooks were carried by petty pedlars known as chapmen, and sold
for a penny, so that even the poor could buy them.
In France, were the ‘Biliotheque Bleue’, which were low-priced small books printed on
poor quality paper, and bound in cheap blue covers.
Then there were the romances, printed on four to six pages, and the more substantial
‘histories’ which were stories about the past.
Books were of various sizes, serving many different purposes and interests.
The periodical press developed from the early eighteenth century, combining information
about current affairs with entertainment.
Newspapers and journals carried information about wars and trade, as well as news of
developments in other places.
Similarly, the ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the
common people.
Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published, and maps and
scientific diagrams were widely printed. When scientists like Isaac Newton began to
publish their discoveries, they could influence a much wider circle of scientifically
minded readers.
The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were
also widely printed and read.
Thus their ideas about science, reason and rationality found their way into popular
Books – Enlightment
Q24 Why did some people in the eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would
bring enlightenment and end despotism?
By the mid-eighteenth century, there was a common conviction that books were a means of
spreading progress and enlightenment.
Many believed that books could change the world, liberate society from despotism and
tyranny, and herald a time when reason and intellect would rule.
Louise-Sebastien Mercier, a novelist in eighteenth-century France, declared: ‘The
printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that
will sweep despotism away.’ In many of Mercier’s novels, the heroes are transformed by
acts of reading. They devour books ,are lost in the world of books and become
enlightened in the process, Mercier proclaimed “Tremble therefore tyrants of the
world”Tremble before the virtual writer.
Q.25 What was the implication of print culture on the French Revolution?
First: print popularised the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers
Collectively, their writings provided a critical commentary on tradition, superstition and
They argued for the rule of reason rather than custom, and demanded that everything be
judged through the application of reason and rationality.
They attacked the sacred authority of the Church and the despotic power of the state, thus
eroding the legitimacy of a social order based on tradition. The writings of Voltaire and
Rousseau were read widely; and those who read these books saw the world through new
eyes, eyes that were questioning, critical and rational.
Second: print created a new culture of dialogue and debate.
All values, norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by a public that had
become aware of the power of reason, and recognised the need to question existing ideas
and beliefs. Within this public culture, new ideas of social revolution came into being.
Third: by the 1780s there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty
and criticised their morality.
In the process, it raised questions about the existing social order.
Cartoons and caricatures typically suggested that the monarchy remained absorbed only
in sensual pleasures while the common people suffered immense hardships. This
literature circulated underground and led to the growth of hostile sentiments against the
Q.26 What was the impact of the Print Revolution on children, women and workers?
As primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century, children
became an important category of readers.
Production of school textbooks became critical for the publishing industry.
A children’s press, devoted to literature for children alone, was set up in France in 1857.
This press published new works as well as old fairy tales and folk tales.
The Grimm Brothers in Germany spent years compiling traditional folk tales gathered
from peasants. What they collected was edited before the stories were published in a
collection in 1812.
Anything that was considered unsuitable for children or would appear vulgar to the elites,
was not included in the published version.
Rural folk tales thus acquired a new form. In this way, print recorded old tales but also
changed them
Penny magazines were especially meant for women, as were manuals teaching proper
behaviour and housekeeping.
When novels began to be written in the nineteenth century, women were seen as
important readers. Some of the best known novelists were women: Jane Austen, the
Bronte sisters, George Eliot
Their writings became important in defining a new type of woman: a person with will,
strength of personality, determination and the power to think
Literacy – Workers
Lending libraries had been in existence from the seventeenth century onwards.
In the nineteenth century, lending libraries in England became instruments for educating
white-collar workers, artisans and lower-middle-class people.
Sometimes, self-educated working class people wrote for themselves.
After the working day was gradually shortened from the mid-nineteenth century, workers had
some time for self-improvement and self-expression.
They wrote political tracts and autobiographies in large numbers.
Q27 What were the innovations in Print technology after the 18th century? (any 4)
By the late eighteenth century, the press came to be made out of metal. Through the
nineteenth century, there were a series of further innovations in printing technology.
By the mid-nineteenth century, Richard M. Hoe of New York had perfected the powerdriven
cylindrical press. This was capable of printing 8,000 sheets per hour. This press
was particularly useful for printing newspapers.
In the late nineteenth century, the offset press was developed which could print up to six
colours at a time.
From the turn of the twentieth century, electrically operated presses accelerated printing
operations. A series of other developments followed.
Methods of feeding paper improved, the quality of plates became better, automatic paper
reels and photoelectric controls of the colour register were introduced.
The accumulation of several individual mechanical improvements transformed the
appearance of printed texts.
India and the World of Print
Q1. What were the important features of manuscripts in ancient India?
India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts – in Sanskrit, Arabic,
Persian, as well as in various vernacular languages.
Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.
Pages were sometimes beautifully illustrated. They would be either pressed between
wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.
Manuscripts continued to be produced till well after the introduction of print, down to the
late nineteenth century.
Q2. What were the limitations of manuscript in ancient India?
Manuscripts, however, were highly expensive and fragile.
They had to be handled carefully, and they could not be read easily as the script was
written in different styles. So manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life.
Even though pre-colonial Bengal had developed an extensive network of village primary
schools, students very often did not read texts. They only learnt to write.
Teachers dictated portions of texts from memory and students wrote them down.
Many thus became literate without ever actually reading any kinds of texts.
Print Comes to India
Q3.Give examples of the early books that were printed in India
The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid-sixteenth
Jesuit priests learnt Konkani and printed several tracts. By 1674, about 50 books had been
printed in the Konkani and in Kanara languages.
Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book in 1579 at Cochin, and in 1713 the first
Malayalam book was printed by them. By 1710, Dutch Protestant missionaries had
printed 32 Tamil texts, many of them translations of older works.
Printing – Colonial Influence
Q4.Briefly describe the colonial influence on printing in India with the help of examples
From 1780, James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine
that described itself as ‘a commercial paper open to all, but influenced by none’. So it
was private English enterprise, proud of its independence from colonial influence, that
began English printing in India.
Hickey published a lot of advertisements, including those that related to the import and
sale of slaves. But he also published a lot of gossip about the Company’s senior officials
in India. Enraged by this, Governor-General Warren Hastings persecuted Hickey, and
encouraged the publication of officially sanctioned newspapers that could counter the
flow of information that damaged the image of the colonial government.
By the close of the eighteenth century, a number of newspapers and journals appeared in
There were Indians, too, who began to publish Indian newspapers.
The first to appear was the weekly Bengal Gazette, brought out by Gangadhar
Bhattacharya, who was close to Rammohun Roy.
Q5.What were the implications of Print culture on the religious reforms in India?
From the early nineteenth century, there were intense debates around religious issues.
Different groups confronted the changes happening within colonial society in different
ways, and offered a variety of new interpretations of the beliefs of different religions.
Some criticised existing practices and campaigned for reform, while others countered the
arguments of reformers. These debates were carried out in public and in print.
Printed tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas, but they shaped the nature
of the debate. A wider public could now participate in these public discussions and
express their views.
New ideas emerged through these clashes of opinions.
This was a time of intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the
Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical
priesthood and idolatry. In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers
proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments.
To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday, spoken language of
ordinary people. Rammohun Roy published the Sambad Kaumudi from 1821 and the
Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the Samachar Chandrika to oppose his opinions. From
1822, two Persian newspapers were published, Jam-i-Jahan Nama and Shamsul Akhbar.
In the same year, a Gujarati newspaper, the Bombay Samachar, made its appearance.
Q6. Why did the Muslim clergy want to introduce religious reforms in Islam?
In north India, the ulama were deeply anxious about the collapse of Muslim dynasties.
They feared that colonial rulers would encourage conversion, change the Muslim
personal laws.
To counter this, they used cheap lithographic presses, published Persian and Urdu
translations of holy scriptures, and printed religious newspapers and tracts.
The Deoband Seminary, founded in 1867, published thousands upon thousands of fatwas
telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and explaining
the meanings of Islamic doctrines.
Q7 What were the implications of Print culture among the Hindus?
Among Hindus, too, print encouraged the reading of religious texts, especially in the
vernacular languages.
The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, a sixteenth-century text,
came out from Calcutta in 1810. By the mid-nineteenth century, cheap lithographic
editions flooded north Indian markets.
From the 1880s, the Naval Kishore Press at Lucknow and the Shri Venkateshwar Press in
Bombay published numerous religious texts in vernaculars. In their printed and portable
form, these could be read easily by the faithful at any place and time.
They could also be read out to large groups of illiterate men and women.
New Forms of Publication
Q8.Mention the new forms of publications in Indi
Printing created an appetite for new kinds of writing. As more and more people could
now read, they wanted to see their own lives, experiences, emotions and relationships
reflected in what they read.
The novel, a literary firm which had developed in Europe, ideally catered to this need. It
soon acquired distinctively Indian forms and styles. For readers, it opened up new worlds
of experience, and gave a vivid sense of the diversity of human lives.
Other new literary forms also entered the world of reading – lyrics, short stories, essays
about social and political matters. In different ways, they reinforced the new emphasis on
human lives and intimate feelings, about the political and social rules that shaped such
Q9What was the effect of print technology on new visual culture?
With the setting up of an increasing number of printing presses, visual images could be
easily reproduced in multiple copies.
Painters like Raja Ravi Varma produced images for mass circulation.
Cheap prints and calendars, easily available in the bazaar, could be bought even by the
poor to decorate the walls of their homes or places of work.
These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity and tradition, religion and
politics, and society and culture.
Caricatures and Cartoons
By the 1870s, caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers,
commenting on social and political issues.
Some caricatures ridiculed the educated Indians’ fascination with Western tastes and
clothes, while others expressed the fear of social change.
There were imperial caricatures lampooning nationalists, as well as nationalist cartoons
criticizing imperial rule.
Q10 What was the effect of Print culture on the life of the women in India?
Lives and feelings of women began to be written in particularly vivid and intense ways.
Women’s reading, therefore, increased enormously in middle-class homes. Liberal
husbands and fathers began educating their womenfolk at home, and sent them to schools
when women’s schools were set up in the cities and towns after the mid-nineteenth
Many journals began carrying writings by women, and explained why women should be
educated. They also carried a syllabus and attached suitable reading matter which could
be used for home-based schooling.
Women Writers
Q11What was the impct of print on women in India?
Since social reforms and novels had already created a great interest in women’s lives and
emotions, there was also an interest in what women would have to say about their own lives.
From the 1860s, a few Bengali women like Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting
the experiences of women – about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in
ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the very people they
In the 1880s, in present-day Maharashtra, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote
with passionate anger about the miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women, especially
In the early twentieth century, journals, written for and sometimes edited by women,
became extremely popular.
They discussed issues like women’s education, widowhood, widow remarriage and the
national movement.
Some of them offered household and fashion lessons to women and brought
entertainment through short stories and serialised novels.
Liberal husbands nd fthers begn educting their womenol t homes nd sent them to
schools when the women schoos opened up.
Q12How did Print technology effect the folk literature?
In Punjab, too, a similar folk literature was widely printed from the early twentieth
Ram Chaddha published the fast-selling Istri Dharm Vichar to teach women how to be
obedient wives.
The Khalsa Tract Society published cheap booklets with a similar message. Many of
these were in the form of dialogues about the qualities of a good woman.
In Bengal, an entire area in central Calcutta – the Battala – was devoted to the printing of
popular books. Here you could buy cheap editions of religious tracts and scriptures, as
well as literature that was considered obscene and scandalous.
By the late nineteenth century, a lot of these books were being profusely illustrated with
woodcuts and coloured lithographs. Pedlars took the Battala publications to homes,
enabling women to read them in their leisure time.
Print and the Poor People ( NCERT Q.)
Q13What was the impact of the print on the poor people?
Very cheap small books were brought to markets in nineteenth-century Madras towns and
sold at crossroads, allowing poor people travelling to markets to buy them.
Public libraries were set up from the early twentieth century, expanding the access to
These libraries were located mostly in cities and towns, and at times in prosperous
villages. For rich local patrons, setting up a library was a way of acquiring prestige.
Late Nineteenth Century, Issues of Caste Discrimination ( NCERT Q – REFORMERS )
Q14.How did print discuss the issues of social reform?
From the late nineteenth century, issues of caste discrimination began to be written about in
many printed tracts and essays.
Jyotiba Phule, the Maratha pioneer of ‘low caste’ protest movements, wrote about the
injustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri (1871).
In the twentieth century, B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker
in Madras, better known as Periyar, wrote powerfully on caste and their writings were
read by people all over India.
Local protest movements and sects also created a lot of popular journals and tracts
criticising ancient scriptures and envisioning a new and just future.
Workers in Factories
Q15.What was the impact of print on workers in the factories?
Workers in factories were too overworked and lacked the education to write much about their
Kashibaba, a Kanpur millworker, wrote and published Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal in
1938 to show the links between caste and class exploitation.
The poems of another Kanpur millworker, who wrote under the name of Sudarshan
Chakr between 1935 and 1955, were brought together and published in a collection called
Sacchi Kavitayan.
By the 1930s, Bangalore cotton millworkers set up libraries to educate themselves,
following the example of Bombay workers.
These were sponsored by social reformers who tried to restrict excessive drinking among
them, to bring literacy and, sometimes, to propagate the message of nationalism.
Print and Censorship
Before 1798, the colonial state under the East India Company was not too concerned with
censorship. Strangely, its early measures to control printed matter were directed against
Englishmen in India who were critical of Company misrule and hated the actions of
particular Company officers.
The Company was worried that such criticisms might be used by its critics in England to
attack its trade monopoly in India.
By the 1820s, the Calcutta Supreme Court passed certain regulations to control press
freedom and the Company began encouraging publication of newspapers that would
celebrate British rule.
In 1835, faced with urgent petitions by editors of English and vernacular newspapers,
Governor-General Bentinck agreed to revise press laws. Thomas Macaulay, a liberal
colonial official, formulated new rules that restored the earlier freedoms.
After the Revolt of 1857
Wht prompted the British government to curb thefreedom of the Indian press and what
steps did it take to achieve this aim/
After the revolt of 1857, the attitude to freedom of the press changed. Enraged
Englishmen demanded a clamp down on the ‘native’ press. As vernacular newspapers
became assertively nationalist, the colonial government began debating measures of
stringent control.
In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed, modelled on the Irish Press Laws.
It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the
vernacular press.
From now on the government kept regular track of the vernacular newspapers published
in different provinces. When a report was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned,
and if the warning was ignored, the press was liable to be seized and the printing
machinery confiscated.
Nationalist Newspapers
Explain how the print culture led to the the growth of Nationlism in India?
Despite repressive measures, nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India.
They reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities.
Attempts to throttle nationalist criticism provoked militant protest.
This in turn led to a renewed cycle of persecution and protests.
When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, Balgangadhar Tilak wrote with
great sympathy about them in his Kesari. This led to his imprisonment in 1908,
provoking in turn widespread protests all over India.
Ques-1. Define the following words.
Ans.-1. a.) Calligraphy- The art of beautiful and stylized writing.
b.) Vellum- A parchment made from the skin of animals.
c.)Platen- In letterpress printing, platen is a board which is pressed onto the back of the paper to get the
impression from the type. At one time it used to be a wooden board; later it is made of the steel.
d.) Compositor- The person who composes the text for printing.
e.) Galley- Metal frame in which types are laid and the text composed.
f.) Ballad- A historical account or folk tale in verse, usually sung or recited.
g.) Taverns- Places where people gathered to drink alcohol, to be served food, and to meet friends and
exchange news.
h.) Protestant Reformations- A sixteenth- century movement to reform the Catholic Church dominated by
Rome. Martin Luther was one of the main Protestant reformers. Several traditions of anti- Catholic
Christianity developed out of the movement.
i.) Inquisition- A former Roman Catholic court for identifying and punishing heretics.
j.) Heretical- Beliefs which do not follow the accepted teachings of the Church. In medieval times, heresy
was seen as a threat to the right of the Church to decide on what should be believed and what should not.
Heretical beliefs were severely punished.
k.) Satiety- The state of being fulfilled much beyond the point of satisfaction.
l.) Seditious- Action, speech or writing that is seen as opposition the government.
m.) Denominations- Sub groups within a religion.
n.) Almanac- An annual publication giving astronomical data, information about the movements of the
sun and moon, timing of full tides and eclipses, and much else that was of importance in the everyday life
of people.
o.) Chapbook- A term used to describe pocket- size books that are sold by traveling pedlars called
chapmen. These became popular from the time of the sixteenth- century print revolution.
p.) Despotism- A system of governance in which absolute power is exercised by an individual, unregulated
by legal and constitutional checks.
q.) Ulama- Legal scholars of Islam and the sharia (a body of Islamic law).
r.) Fatwa- A legal pronouncement on Islamic law usually given by a mufti (legal scholar) to clarify issues
on which the law is uncertain.
Note: The following questions should be done in the note books
.-1. Give reasons for the following :
a.) Woodblock print only came to Europe after 1295.
b.) Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it.
c.) The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an index of prohibited books from the mid- sixteenth
d.) Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight of liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of
Ques.-2. Write short notes to show what you know about:
a.) The Gutenberg Press
b.) Erasmus’s idea of the printed book
c.) The vernacular Press Act
Ques.-3. What did the spread of print culture in nineteenth century India mean to:
a.) Women
b.) The poor
c.) Reformers
Ques.-4.Why did some people in eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring
enlightenment and end despotism?
Q.-5. Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? Choose one example from
Europe and one from India.
Q.-6. What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth century India?
Q-7. Explain how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India.


Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was
large-scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on
factories. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialisation as -
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe
began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans,
persuading them to produce for an international market. With the expansion of world
trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for
goods began growing.
INCREASED DEMAND : With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of
colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing.
merchants could not expand production within towns. This was because here urban
crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were associations of producers that
trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and
prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade. Rulers granted different
guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products. It was therefore
difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they turned to the
1. DISAPPERING OPEN FIELD SYSTEM: open fields were disappearing
and commons were being enclosed. Cottagers and poor peasants who had
earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood,
berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sources of
income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all
members of the household. So when merchants came around and offered
advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.
Many farmers had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all
members of the household. Income from proto-industrial production
supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a
fuller use of their family labour resources.
Within this system a close relationship developed between the town and the
countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the
countryside. A merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool , and
carried it to the spinners; the yarn (thread) that was spun was taken in subsequent
stages of production to weavers, , and then to dyers. The finishing was done in
London before the export merchant sold the cloth in the international market.
London in fact came to be known as a finishing centre. This proto-industrial
system was thus part of a network of commercial exchanges.
The earliest factories in England came up by the 1730s. But it was only in the late
eighteenth century that the number of factories multiplied
A SERIES OF INVENTIONS in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of
each step of the production process ( , twisting and spinning, and rolling). They
enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they
made possible the production of stronger threads and yarn.
Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill. Now, the costly new machines could be
purchased, set up and maintained in the mill. All th4e production pocesses
were brought together under one roof and management. This allowed a more careful
supervision over the production process, a watch over quality, and the regulation of
labour, all of which had been difficult to do when production was in the countryside.
1. cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation up to the
2. iron and steel industry led the way. With the expansion of railways, in
England from the 1840s and in the colonies from the 1860s, the demand for
iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1873 Britain was exporting iron and steel
worth about £ 77 million, double the value of its cotton export
A. James Watt improved the steam engine by Newcoman and Mathew Boulton, the
industrialist, manufactured the new model. Yet it was not accepted by all production
sector as the pace of industrialization was slow till the mid 19 century
1.New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about
using it. The machines often broke down and repair was costly. The machines were not
effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
2. The new industries could not easily displace traditional industries. Even at the end
of the nineteenth century, less than 20 per cent of the total workforce was employed in
technologically advanced industrial sectors. Textiles was a dynamic sector, but a large
portion of the output was produced not within factories, but outside, within domestic
3. The pace of change in the traditional industries was not set by the steam powered
cotton or metal industries, but they did not remain entirely stagnant either. Seemingly
ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth in many non-mechanised
sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture
making, and production of implements There was plenty of labour and wages were
1.. Hand Labour could produce a range of products. Machines were oriented to producing
uniforms and standardized goods for a mass market.
2. The market demand was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes that
Only hand labour could produce
1. In Victorian Britain, the upper classes (the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie) preferred
things produced by hand. They symbolized refinement and class. They were better
finished, individually produced and carefully designed. Machine-made goods were
meant for export to the colonies
The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers
1. As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the
cities. The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing networks of
friendship and kin relations.
2. Many job- seekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in
Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went
to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities.
3. Seasonality of work in many industries meant prolonged periods without
work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again.
Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour
in the rural areas opened up in places.
4. Wages increased somewhat in the early nineteenth century. During the
prolonged Napoleonic War, the real value of what the workers earned fell
significantly, since the same wages could now buy fewer things.
5. The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new when the spinning jenny was introduced women workers started
attacking the machines as they feared unemployment
opportunities as roads were widened, new railway stations came up,railway lines
extended and tunnels were dug up. The number of workers employed in the transport
industry doubled in the 1840s, and doubled again in the subsequent 30 years.
Before the age of machine industries, SILK AND COTTON GOODS from India
dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many
countries, but the finer varieties often came from India
. Surat on the Gujarat Coast connected India to the Gulf and the Red Sea ports.
Masulipatam on the Coromandel Coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with South-
East Asian ports.
THE mer chants gave advances to weavers, procured the woven cloth from weaving
villages, and carried the supply to the ports. At the port, the big shippers and export
merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply
merchants operating inland
1. The Indian exports drastically declined
2. The old ports of Surat and Hoogly declined and Bombay and Calcutta grew as
new ports
3. Many of the old trading houses collapsed and the Indian Bankers henceforth
flourishing on Indian export trade became bankrupt.
The French, The Dutch and the Portuguese were the other European traders competing
with the East India Company in 1760-1770 in Indian markets for exports.
Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the
cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a
paid servant called the to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the
quality of cloth. Second: it prevented Company weavers from dealing with other
2. SYSTEM OF ADVANCES: Once an order was placed, the weavers were given
loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had
to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomasthas and. They could not take it
to any other trader
1. Many weavers had small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated along
with weaving, and the produce from this took care of their family needs. Now
they had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving. Weaving,
in fact, required the labour of the entire family, with children and women all
engaged in different stages of the process.
2. in many weaving villages there were reports of clashes between weavers and .
the gomasthas who acted arrogantly, marched into villages, and punished
weavers for delays
3. In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers deserted villages and
migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family
4. . Elsewhere, weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the
Company and its officials. Over time many weavers began refusing loans,
closing down their workshops and taking to agricultural labour.
In 1772, HENRY PATULLO, a Company official, had ventured to say that the
demand for Indian textiles could never reduce, since no other nation produced
goods of the same quality.
1.IMPOSITION OF IMPORT DUTIES: import duties were imposed on the I
ndian cotton textiles so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing
any competition from outside.
At the same time industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British
manufactures in Indian markets as well
1. SHRINKING OF LOCAL MARKET the local market shrank, being glutted
with Manchester imports. Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported
cotton goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
2. COLLAPSE OF THE EXPORT MARKET:After imposition of import
duties Indian textileslost their world market
3. SHORTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL: By the 1860s, weavers faced a new
problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good
the American Civil war broke out and the British cotton supplies from US
were cut off and so theyturned to India. Cotton export from India increasedand
price of raw cotton shot .
. Bombay in 1854
. Seth Hukumchand, a marwary set up the first Indian Juste Mill in Calcutta in
. Dwarakanath Tagore, Parsis like Dinshah Petit and Jamshedjee Nusserwanjee
Tata and Seth Hukumchand and father and grandfather of G.D. Birla traded with China in
18th & 19th centuries.
. Dwarakanath Tagore.
. Dwarakanath Tagore believed that India would develop through Westernization
and Industrialization. He invested in shipping, shipbuilding, mining, banking, plantations
and insurance in 1830’s. These were his six joint-stock companies. He traded with China
also. But, his business sank along with those others in the wider business crisis of the
. J.N. Tata set up the first iron and steel mill in India in Jamshedpur in 1907.
1. In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. . Over 50
per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the
neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their
textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur.
2. Most often millworkers moved between the village and the city, returning to
their village homes during harvests and festivals. Over time, as news of
employment spread, workers travelled great distances in the hope of work in
the mills. From the United Provinces, for instance, they went to work in the
textile mills of Bombay and in the jute mills of Calcutta. R.D. Tata, Sir R.J.
Tata, and Sir D.J. Tata.
3. Industrialists usually employed a JOBBER to get new recruits. Very often the
jobber was an old and trusted worker. He got people from his village, ensured
them jobs, helped them settle in the city and provided them money in times of
crisis. The jobber therefore became a person with some authority and power.
Bird Heiglers & Co., Andrew Yule and Jardine Skinner & Co.
A. Tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheaper rates from the colonial
government, mining, indigo and jute were the most important fields of activity in which
the European Managing Agencies invested in India.
By the first decade of the twentieth century a series of changes affected the pattern of
1. As the swadeshi movement gathered momentum, nationalists mobilised
people to boycott foreign cloth. Industrial groups organised themselves to
protect their collective interests, pressurising the government to increase tariff
protection and grant other concessions.
2. From 1906, moreover, the export of Indian yarn to China declined since
produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market. So
industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton
piece- goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
3. Out break of the First World WAR
A. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army,
Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home
market to supply. As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to
supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots,
horse and mule saddles and a host of other items.
B. New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers
were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours
1. This was partly because of technological changes. Handicrafts people adopted new
technology if that helped them improve production without excessively pushing up
costs. Eg the invention of the Fly Shuttle a mechanical device used for weaving, moved
by means of ropes and pulleys. It places the horizontal threads called the weft into the
vertical threads (warp). The invention of the Fly Shuttle made it possible for the Indian
weavers to operate large looms and weave wide pieces of cloth.
A.It increased productivity of worker, speed-up production and reduced labour demand It
helped them to compete with mill sector
B. By 1941, over 35% handlooms in India were fitted with Fly Shuttles. Fly Shuttle
fittings went up to 70% - 80% in regions like Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin and
2. Certain groups of weavers were in a better position than others to survive the
competition with mill industries. Amongst weavers some produced coarse cloth while
others wove finer varieties. The coarser cloth was bought by the poor and its demand
fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines, when the rural poor had
little to eat, and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth. The
demand for the finer varieties bought by the well-to-do was more stable. The rich
could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of
Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, , mills could not imitate specialised weaves.
Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could
not be easily displaced by mill production. Weavers and other craftspeople who
continued to expand production through the twentieth century, did not necessarily
a. THROUGHLABELS: When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in
India, they put labels on the cloth bundles. The label was needed to make the
place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer.
expected to feel confident about buying the cloth. twentieth century.Images of
Indian Gods and Goddesses regularly appeared on these labels . It was as if the
association with gods gave divine approval to the goods being sold.
b. CALENDARS :By the late 19 century manufacturers were printing calendars
to popularize their products. Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars
were used even by people who could not read..
A.ADVERTISMENTS: When Indian manufacturers advertised the nationalist
message was clear and loud. If you care for the nation then buy products that Indians
produce. Advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of swadeshi.
B. LABELS:Images of Gods and Godesses regularly appeared on labels giving it
divine approval.When Manchester industrialists began selling their cloth in India they
put the label made in Manchester which became a symbol of quality
c. CALENDARS: The figures of gods were used to sell new products. Like the
images of gods, figures of important personages, of emperors and nawabs, adorned
advertisement and calendars. The message very often seemed to say: if you respect
the royal figure, then respect this product; when the product was being used by kings,
or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned.

Q1 Mention the 3 different classifications on the basis of which we divide the sectors Indian economy.
A1 a) Primary, Secondary & Tertiary sector
b) Private & Public sector
c) Organized & unorganized sector
Q2 Classify industries on the basis of their economic activities with examples
This sector consists of activities that are undertaken by directly using the natural resources. This sector is called
primary as it forms the base for all other products to be subsequently produced.
Example: In activities like dairy, we are dependent on the biological process of the animals & availability of
fodder; cultivation of co on which depends on the availability natural factors like rainfall, sunshine etc.
It covers activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that
we associate with industrial activity. The product is not produced by nature but has to be made & thus some
process of manufacturing is important. This could be done in a factory, workshop or at home. Since this sector
gradually become associated with the different kinds of industries, it is also called industrial sector.
Example: Using sugarcane as a raw material, we make sugar or gur; using wood to make furniture etc.
This sector consists of activities that do not produce goods but they are an aid in the production process. Since
these activities generate services than goods, it is also called service sector.
Example: Goods produced in primary or secondary need to be transported by trains or trucks to be able to
reach the final consumers; making use of banking service to borrow loan from banks to help production &
Q3 Why the Primary sector is also called ‘agriculture & related sector’?
A3 Since most of the natural products we get are from agriculture, dairy, fishing, forestry, this sector is also
called ‘agriculture & related sector’.
Q4 What changes have been bought about in the primary, secondary & tertiary sectors over a period of
a) Noted from the histories of many (now developed) countries, primary sector was the most
important sector of economic activity at initial stages of development.
b) As the methods of farming changed & agricultural sector began to prosper, it produced much more
food than before.
c) Many people could now take up other activities. Buying & selling activities increased many times.
d) However, at this stage most of the goods produced were natural products from primary sector &
most people were also employed in this sector.
a) Over a long me & specially because new methods of manufacturing were introduced, factories
came up & started expanding
b) Those people who had earlier worked on farms now began to work in factories in large numbers.
People began to use goods that were produced in factories at cheaper rates.
c) This sector gradually became important in the total production & employment.
d) Hence, over time, a shift had taken place. This means that the importance of sectors had changed.
a) In the past 100 years, there has been a further shift from secondary to tertiary sector in developed
b) The service sector has become very important in terms of the total production.
c) Most of the working people are also employed in the service sector. This is the general pattern
observed in developed countries.
Q5 “Tertiary sector has emerged as the largest producing sector in India replacing the primary sector”.
Explain why is the tertiary sector becoming so important in India?
A5 Following factors can be attributed for the rising importance of the tertiary sector:
First, in any country, several services like hospitals, banks, insurance, police station, courts etc are required.
These can be said as basic services which are the responsibility of government in a developing country.
Second, the development of agriculture & industry leads to the development of services such as transport,
trade, storage & the like. Thus, greater the development of primary & secondary sectors more would be the
demand of such services.
Third, as income level rise, certain sections of people start demanding more services like eating out, shopping,
private schools or hospitals etc.
Fourth, over the past decade or so, certain new services like those based on information & communication
technology have become important. The production of these services has been rising rapidly.
Q6 “Not the en re service sector is growing equally well.” Do you agree with this statement? Give reason(s)
for your answer.
A6 Yes, not the en re service sector is growing equally well. This is because the service sector in India
employs different kinds of people. At the one end, there are a limited number of services that employ highly
skilled & educated workers. At the other end, there are a very large number of workers engaged in services like
small shopkeepers, repair persons, transport persons etc these people barely manage to earn a living & yet they
perform these services as no alternative work is available to them. Hence, only a part of this sector is growing in
Q7 How do we calculate the GDP of a country?
A7 GDP is the Gross Domes c Product which is calculated by having the sum of production in the 3 sectors.
GDP is the value of all final goods & services produced within a country during a particular year. In India, the
task of measuring GDP is undertaken by central ministry which collects information relating to total volume of
goods & services & their prices & then estimates the GDP.
Q8 Why are only ‘final goods & services’ counted in the GDP? Explain with the help of an example.
A8 This is because the value of final goods already includes the value of all intermediate goods that are used
in making the final good.
For example, a farmer sells wheat to a flour mill for Rs 8 per Kg. The flour mill grinds the wheat & sells the
flour to a biscuit company for Rs 10 per Kg. The biscuits company in turn uses flour & other things to make
biscuit & sells it in the market for Rs 60. Here, the value of Rs 60 for biscuit (final good) already includes the
value of flour (Rs 10).
Q9 “More than half of the workers in the country are working in the primary sector, mainly in agriculture,
produce only a quarter of GDP.” Does this statement mean that the workers in agriculture are not producing as
much as they could? Give reasons.
A9 It is not that the workers in agriculture are not producing as much as they could but the real problem is
that there are more people in agriculture than is necessary. So, even if a few people are pulled out from here,
production will not be affected. Thus, workers in agriculture sector are said to be underemployed. Also, the rate
at which these primary products are sold in the market is less because of which their contribution to the GDP is
also less.
Q10 Why is the problem of underemployment hidden in nature?
A10 The problem of underemployment is hidden in nature as people are apparently working but all of them
are made to work less than their potential or some people are even made to work more but are not paid
accordingly & are thereby exploited. This is in contrast to someone who does not have a job & is clearly visible
as unemployed.
Q11 Does the problem of underemployment happen in others sectors also, apart from agriculture?
Substantiate with example(s).
A11 Yes, the problem of disguised unemployment happens in other sectors as well. For example, there are
thousands of casual workers in the service sector in the urban area who search for daily employment. They are
employed as painter, plumber etc. Many of them do not find work every day. Similarly, we see other people in
the service sector where they may spend the whole day but earn very little.
Q12 Why do you think NREGA is referred to as ‘Right to work’?
A12 The central government in India recently made a law implementing the Right to Work in 200 districts of India. It
is called National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005. It is referred to as ‘Right to Work’ as all those who are
able to & are in need of work have been guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the govt. if the govt
fails in its duty to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowance to the people.
Q13 What is an organized sector of economy?
A13 Organized sector covers those enterprises or places of work where the terms of employment are regular
& therefore people have assured work.
Q14 Why is the organized sector of economy so called?
A14 This sector is called Organized because it has some formal processes & procedures. They are registered
by the government & have to follow its rules & regulations which are given in various laws such as the Factories Act,
Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Gratuity Act etc.
Q15 What are the benefits that are enjoyed by the people working in the organized sector?
A15 a) Workers in this sector enjoy security of employment
b) They are expected to work only a fixed number of hours & if they work more, they are paid
over me by the employer.
c) They enjoy benefits like paid leaves, payment during holidays, provident fund, gratuity etc
d) They are supposed to get medical benefits & under the laws, the factory manager has to ensure
facilities like drinking water & safe working environment.
e) On retirement, the workers are even entitled to pensions as well.
Q16 What is unorganized sector of economy?
A16 This sector is characterized by small & scattered units which are largely outside the control of the govt.
There are rules & regulations but which are not followed. Jobs here are low paid & even not regular.
Q17 What are the disadvantages that people have to suffer in the Unorganized Sector?
A17 a) There is no job security as a lot depends on the whims of the employer & some people may be asked
to leave.
b) There is no provision for over me, paid leave, holidays, leave due to sickness etc.
Q18 In the rural areas, who are the vulnerable people in the unorganized sector who need protection by the
A18 In the rural areas, the unorganized sector mostly comprises of landless agricultural laborers, small &
marginal farmers, sharecroppers & artisans (such as weavers, carpenters, goldsmiths etc). Nearly 80% of
the rural household in India is in small & marginal farmer category. These farmers need to be supported
through adequate facilities for timely delivery of seeds, agricultural inputs, credit, storage facility &
marketing outlets.
Q19 In the urban areas, who are the vulnerable people in the unorganized sector who need protection by the
A19 In the urban areas, unorganized sector comprises mainly of the workers in small scale industries, casual
workers in construction, trade & transport etc & those who work as street vendors, head load porters,
rag pickers etc. Small scale industries also need government’s support for processing raw material & for
marketing the output. Similarly, the casual workers also need protection in their jobs & wages.
Q20 How do we classify the sectors of Indian economy in terms of ownership?
A20 In terms of ownership, we can classify the sectors as Private & Public sectors. In the Public sector, govt
owns most of the assets & provides all the services. Example: Railways or post office.
In Private sector, ownership of assets & delivery of services is in the hands of private individuals or
companies. Example: Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL), Tata Iron & Steel Company Ltd (TISCO).
Q21 Why do we need to have Public sector in a society when we have the Private sector providing quality
services? Give reasons for your answer.
A21 We need to have Public Sector for the following reasons:
a) Advances in a private sector are guided by the motive to earn profits. However, the purpose of the
public sector is not to earn profits but to provide services to the people.
b) There are several things needed by the society as a whole but which the private sector will not
provide at a reasonable cost as these need spending large sums of money which is beyond the capacity
of the private sector.
c) Also, collecting money from thousands of people who use these facilities is not easy. Even if the
private sector provides these things, they would charge a high rate for their use.
Thus, governments have to undertake such heavy spending & ensure these facilities are available
to all.

UNIT Term – 1 Subject – Economics
Class - X Chapter – 1 Development
Q. 1 What is Per Capita Income? 1 Mark
Ans. It is obtained by diving national income by the population of a country i.e.
Per Capita Income = National Income / Mid Year Population
Q. 2 What is meant by ‘economic development’? Write the two basis of measuring economic development
of a country? 1 Mark
Ans. Economic development is a sustained increase in real per Capita income that promotes economic
welfare by reducing poverty, unemployment & inequalities in distribution of Income.
Two basis of measuring economic development are National Income & per Capita Income.
Q. 3 “What may be development for one may not be development for the other.” Explain with a suitable
example. 1 Mark
Ans. The establishment of a dam leads to infrastructural development but many people have shifted out of
the village, hence it may not be development for them. 1 Mark
Q. 4 Why is the total income of countries not used to make comparisons between them?
Ans. The total income of the countries is not used to make comparisons between them because the
population of different countries is different. 1 Mark
Q. 5 Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.
Ans. It is an important criterion because it gives some idea about the rising standard of living.
Prosperity of a country depends not only on the size of the national income but also on the number of people
who would share it. 1 Mark
Q. 6 Besides the size of per capita income, which other property of income is important in comparing two or
more societies? 1 Mark
Ans. Per capita income is an important but not the only criterion for development. Along with average
income, equitable distribution of income in a country should also be considered.
Q. 7 Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? 1 Mark
Ans. Sustainability is important for development because it results in
( i ) protecting the people against pollution ensuring their quality of life & health.
( ii ) conserving the environment which is necessary for development.
Q. 8 What is human development index HDI? 1 Mark
Ans. HDI is a composite index of achievements of a nation in terms of three important variables that
determine the quality of life. These three variables are longevity, knowledge & standard of living.
It is prepared by United Nations Development program.
Q. 9 Among Punjab, Kerela & Bihar, which one has the lowest infant mortality rate? 1 Mark
Ans. Kerela has lowest infant mortality rate.
Q.10 How can development be sustained in an economy? Give an example with reference to use of
resources. 1 Mark
Ans. Development can be sustained in any economy by using renewable resources such as ground water,
wind energy & solar energy.
Q. 11 Why is per capita income of different countries calculated in dollars & not in their own currencies by
the World Bank? 1 Mark
Ans. It is done in order to make comparisons of per capita income of different countries possible.
Q. 12 Kerela, with low per capita has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence per capita
income is not useful criterion at all & should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? 3 Marks
Ans. It is true that per capita income is not the only criterion behind human development. Factors like infant
mortality rate, literacy rate & not attendance ratio are also very crucial for overall human development. In
these factors Kerela is better than Punjab. However if we are interested only in comparing two or more
states in terms of production and income generated then per capita income is an important criterion.
Q. 13 In what respects is the criterion used by UNDP for measuring development different from the one
used by the World Bank? 3 Marks
Ans. World Bank uses the criterion of per capita income (measured in dollar terms) to classify different
countries as high income or low income countries. Countries with per capita income of Rs 4,53,000 per
annum & above in 2004 are rich countries & countries which have per capita income of Rs. 37000 per
annum or less are low income countries (according to WDR 2006). But the limitation of this criterion is that
it doesn’t tell us anything about the distribution of income in a country.
UNDP uses a different criterion called human development index (HDI). HDI is a composite index on a
scale 0-1 measured on the basis of three indicators,
a) Longevity :- It is measured in terms of life expectancy
b) Knowledge :- It is measured by a combination of adult literacy & combined enrollment ratio
c) Standard of living :- It is measured by real per capita income in dollars
The country with 0 HDI will be at bottom & the one with 1 HDI will be at top. All other countries are in
Q. 14 ‘While average income is useful for comparison but it may hide disparities’. Discuss.
Ans. Per capita income is an important criterion for development is considered to be one of the most
important attributes for comparing countries but is suffers from the following limitations:
( i ) Per capita income doesn’t tell us anything about the distribution of income. A poor country with a more
equal distribution of income would be better off than a richer country with unequal distribution of income.
( ii ) Per capita income doesn’t measure various facilities & services that influence quality of life e.g. health
facilities, education facilities, equal treatment etc.
( iii ) It is effected by size of population. Even with a large national income, per capita income will be
low if a country has large population.
Q. 15 Distinguish between economic development & human development. 4 Marks
Human Development
1. It refers to human centered approach towards development. It focuses on people & qualitative
improvement in human life.
2. It is indicated by human development index.
3. It is a under term & includes economic development also.
4. It considers human welfare. Should be increased through investments in education & health.
Economic Development
1. It refers to sustained increase in real per capita income that promotes economic welfare by reducing
poverty, unemployment & inequalities in distribution of income.
2. It can be indicated by national income & per capita income.
3. It is narrower term as compared to economic development.
4. It considers people can be made better off by increasing their command over goods and services.
Q. 16 How does industrial pollution degrade the environment? Explain three measures to control
environmental degradation. 4 Marks
Ans. Industrial pollution degrades the environment in the following ways :
( i ) Air is polluted by the gases.
( ii ) Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke contain particles.
( iii ) Industrial effluents pollute rivers.
( iv ) Paper pulp, textiles, chemicals etc. industries pollute land & soil due to toxic materials.
Steps to control environmental degradation are :
( i ) Careful planning & setting of industries.
( ii ) Better equipment
( iii ) Proper fuel selection & utilization.
( iv ) Treatment of industrial liquids.
Q. 17 Identify the different thrust areas of human development. Which one of them plays the most
significant role in the development? 4 Marks
Ans. Human development is a human centered approach towards development. It focuses on people.
It is concerned with them and their well being, their needs, choices & aspirations.
Human development is a wider term which not only includes economic development but also includes
development of one’s knowledge & educational capabilities as well as one’s health conditions so that one
may lead a healthy and long life. Human development aims at building of different human capabilities so
that one may make use of natural resource, have sustainable development have better personal & social
security & to ensure a decent standard of living.
Q.18 “Do the two terms –economic growth and economic development mean the same thing”.
Discuss. 3 Marks
Ans. No, they are different. Economic growth can be defined as a process whereby a country’s real national
income increases over a period of time. On the other hand economic development is a process of long-term
increase in income as well as with achieving a more equitable income distribution and poverty alleviation.
Thus economic development is a wider concept than economic growth.
Q.19 Describe briefly four steps taken by the Indian government for raising the status of women at par with
that of men. 4 Marks
Ans. (i) Women are given the equal right to vote like those of men
(ii) the government of India has declared dowry as illegal and now no one can force the other party to give
(iii) To impart education to girls various schools and colleges have been opened.
(iv) Gender empowerment focusses on opportunities and participation in decision making process and
(v) Women have been recognised as a separate target group in our development planning, for raising their
status at par with that of men. To achieve the above objective the National Commission for women was set
up in January 1992.
Q20 Explain two main reasons for the need of environment friendly economic growth and also explain two
suggestions to achieve them. 4 Marks
Ans. Reasons for need of environment friendly economic growth are:
(i) Present production technology has polluted atmosphere and water bodies with garbage, smoke
and poisnous gases.
(ii) Rapid economic growth and industrialisation have led to natural resources (like fossil fuels).
Suggestions to achieve it:
(i) Increased use of renewable and clean sources of energy, less use of fossil fuels, organic farming.
(ii) Measures to reduce global warming and global limits on carbon emissions etc.

TERM-I (2013-2014 )
Q1: Why is resource planning important in country like India?
Ans: Resource Planning in India is important in a country like India because
(a) There is enormous diversity in the availability of resources.
(b) There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources and deficient in other resources
Q2: Mention the most satisfactory feature of land use pattern of our country?
Ans: The most satisfactory feature of land use pattern of our country is the Barren and Waste
land has reduced from 12.01% (1960-61) to 6.29% (2002-03).
Q3: Which is the most unsatisfactory feature of our land use pattern?
Ans: Land under forests has changed marginally. Forest area is 22.54% which is far lower than
the desired 33% as outlined in the National Forest Policy(1952).
Q4: Why has the land under forest not increased much since1960-61?
Ans: Large scale development projects, industrialization and urbanization as well as agricultural
expansion have widely reduced forest cover in various parts of our country. Though afforestation
and social forestry measures have been adopted, it has lead to only a marginal increase in the
forest area
Q5: Distinguish between Bangar and Khadar soil?
Bangar Soil Khadar Soil
1. It isan old alluvial soil. 1. It is a newer alluvial soil.
2. It is found away from the rivers 2. It is found close to rivers valleys
3. It is less Fertile.
4It has high concentration of kankars nodules
and is coarse
5It is dark in colour
3. It is more Fertile
4It has fine particles and is quite smooth.
5It is light in colour
Ans A)RESOURCE-everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our
needs ,provided ,it is technologically accessible,economically feasible and culturally acceptable
can be termed as resource.
b)SOIL EROSION-the denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described
as soil erosion.
c)BADLAND-the running water,cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as
gullies .the land thus becomes unfit for cultivation ,is known as badland.
Ans Some human activities which contributed significantly in land degradation in our country
are following
MINING AND DEFORESTATION-Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is
complete leaving deep scars and traces of over burdening .In states like Jharkhand
.Chhattisgarh,Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land
2 OVERGRAZING: Due to overgrazing grasses are uprooted and land is
exposed to soil erosion .In states like Gujarat ,Rajasthan ,Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation .
3.OVER IRRIGATION: it is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to
increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil .in the states of punjab ,haryana and western uttar
pradesh over irrigation is the main cause of land degradation.
4:MINERAL PROCESSING:the mineral proccessing like grinding of limestone for cement
industry generate huge quantity of dust in the retards the process of infiltration of
water into the soil after it settles down on the land .
5.INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS :industrial effluents as waste .which are discharged without
treatment,have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.
Ans.Measures taken to control land degradation in different regions of india are following:
extent .it helps in binding the soil and reduces the chances of occurence of.
measures taken in arid and semi arid regions.they help in binding the soil with the roots and also
reduce the speed of wind.
treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and sub urban areas.
Ans.Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate
their economic this process they often consume resources more in quantity
which cause depletion of resources .as more technological development occurs ,there is
increased need of input and utilization of resources .for example, more factories providing
employment to more people is a necessity .for the factory ,land and metal (for machines)are
used. For this mining of minerals increases causing land degradation and depletion of mineral
resources of a certain area. As technical or technological development is closely linked to
economic development we can say that both of these have led to more consumption of resources.
Ans Methods are as follows:
1.CONTOUR PLOUGHING-ploughing in a wrong way i.e. and down the slope form channels
for the quick flow of water leading to soil erosion ,whereas ploughing along the contour lines can
decelerate the flow of water down the slopes .this helps in controlling soil erosion.
2. TERRACE CULTIVATION-steps can be cut on the slopes making terraces .terrace farming
restricts the speed of running water and controls soil erosion .western and central
Himalayas have well developed terrace farming.
3. STRIP CROPPING-large fields can be divided into strips .strips of grass are left to grow
between the crops .this breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping.
4.SHELTER BELT-planting lines of trees to create shelter also helps in breaking up of the force
of the wind .rows of such trees are called shelter belts .these shelter belts have contributed
significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the deserty in western india.
Ans The black soil is black in colour and is also known as regur soil.
a) Formation-it is believed that climatic conditions along with the parent rock material are the
important factors for the formation of black soil. It is made of lava flows.
b)Distribution-this type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap (basalt )region spread over
northwest Deccan plateau .it covers the plateaus of Maharashtra , saurashtra, malwa , Madhya
pradesh ,Chhattisgarh and extend in the southeast direction along the Godavari and the Krishna
c) Nutrients-it is rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. It
is generally poor in phosphoric contents.
d)Other characteristics-black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton
It is made up of extremely fine clayey material and is well known for its capacity to hold water.
It develops deep cracks during hot weather which helps in the proper aeration of the soil .it is
sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or
during the pre monsoon period.
Ans .The total area of india is 3.28 million to the land use data ,records are
available only for about 93%of the total area .the land is used for following purposes:
1. Net sown area-43.41%area of the total reporting area is in this category. The pattern of NSA
varies greatly one state to another .it is over 80%of the total area in punjab and haryana and less
than 10%in arunachal pradesh ,Mizoram , Manipur and Andaman and nicobar islands.
2. Fallow land-fallow other than the current fallow land is 3.82%of the total reported area. These
lands are cultivated once or twice in about two to three years as either these are of poor quality or
the cost of cultivation of such land is very high. If these are included in the NSA then the %of
NSA in india comes to about 54%of the total reporting area.
3. Permanent pasture-the land under permanent pasture has decreased in last few decades .it is
quite difficult for the farmers to feed huge cattle .population on this pasture land and it has
affected the production of milk and other animal products
4. Forest area -forest area in our country is far lower than the desired 33%of the geographical
area, as it was outlined in the national forest policy (1952).in our country 22.57%of the total
reported area is under forest. It was considered essential to have one third of the total area under
forests for the maintenance of the ecological balance. The livelihood of the millions of people
who live on the fringes of these forests depends upon it.
5. Land not available for cultivationa.
Barren waste land- it includes rocky, arid and desert areas. Land under this category reduced
from 12.01% to 6.29% which is the most satisfactory feature of our land use pattern.
b. Land put to other non-agricultural uses- it includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc. it
increased from 4.95% to 7.29% in last few decades due to increasing population,
industrialization and urbanization.
Q13:What are the problems associated with indiscriminate use of resources? how
can it be solved?
Ans.Resources are vital for human survival as well as for maintaining the quality of life. It was
believed that resources are the free gifts of nature . as a result, human beings used them
indiscriminately and this has led to the following major problems:
a. Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.
b. Accumulation of resources in few hands, which in turn, divided the society into rich and
c. Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as global
warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
d. SOLUTION: an equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained
quality of life and global peace. Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence
of all forms of life.
Q14: Distinguish between biotic and abiotic resources.
These are obtained from biosphere i.e. living
These are obtained from the non-living
Some of these resources are renewable. They are non- renewable but some are
Eg: flora and fauna Eg: rocks, minerals, air and water
Q15: Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources.
Resources which can be renewed or reproduced
by physical, chemical and mechanical
Resources which cannot be renewed or
They get renewed over a short period of time. They occur over a very long geological period
(millions of years).
They are unlimited and are not exhausted. They are limited in their availability and are
These are further divided into continuous or
flow and biological.
These are divided into recyclable and nonrecyclable.
Eg: water, wind , forest, wildlife, solar energy. Eg: minerals and fossil fuels.
Q16: distinguish between individual resources and national resources.
These are owned by individuals privately These resources belong to the nation
Many farmers own land which is allotted to the
government against the payment of revenue.
The country has legal powers to acquire even
private property for public good. At times
roads and canals are constructed by acquiring
the private property.
In villages these are the people with land
ownership but many are landless. In urban
areas people own plots, houses, ponds, water
wells etc.
Urban Development Authorities get
empowered by the govt. to acquire land. all
minerals , water, forests, wildlife, land within
the political boundaries and territorial water
belong to the nation.
Q17: Name four broad types of soils found in India. Mention the two characteristics of a soil
which are most important and widespread.
A: four major types of soil found in India are
a. Alluvial soil
b. Black soil
c. Red and yellow soil
d. Laterite soil
Alluvial soil is the most important and widespread soil in India.
Two characteristics of alluvial soil:
a. This soil is formed by deposition of materials brought down by rivers
b. It is highly fertile. It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
Q18: State the diverse relief features of India and mention one significance of each.
A: India has diverse relief features namely mountains, plateaus and plains.
PLAINS: about 43% of the land is plains which is agriculturally and industrially
MOUNTAINS: mountains account for 30% of the total area and are the source of many
perennial rivers, promote tourism and development of horticulture.
PLATEAUS: about 27% of the land area of the country are the plateaus which are the
storehouse of minerals, forest and fossil fuels. They form the backbone of the country’s
economy in promoting the development of industries.
Q19’ Resources are the functions of human beings’ Justify the statement
Ans The process of transformation of t he resources
available in our environment involves an interdependent relationship between nature,
technology and institutions. Human beings interact with nature through A The process of
transformation of things available in our environment involves an interdependent technology
and create institutions to accelerate their economic development .Human beings themselves are
essential components of resources .They transform the material available in our environment
into resources and use them.
Q20 ‘Resource planning is a complex process’.Justify
Explain three important stages involved in the process of resource planning.
Ans Resource planning is a complex process which involves-:
i)Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves
surveying ,mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the
ii)Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology,skill and institutional set
up for implementing resource development plans.
iii)Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans
Q21 Write important features of laterite soil .
Ansi) The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall.
ii)This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain.
iii)Humus content is low due to micro-organisms particularly the decomposers ,like bacteria,get
destroyed due to high temperature
iv)Laterite soils are suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.
Q22 Describe the characteristics of arid soils.
Ans i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
ii) They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
iii)Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and
iv) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium
content downwards. The kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restricts the
infiltrations of water.
v)After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of Rajasthan.
Q23Write important features of Red and Yellow soils
Ans i) Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall.
ii)These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline igneous and
metamphoric rocks.
iii)It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form
iv) These soils are found in parts of Orissa ,Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga
plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats

1 “India is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of its vast array of biological
diversity” Support the statement with three facts.
Ans Three facts arei)
India has about 8% of the total number species of plants and animals of the
world(estimated to be 1.6 million )
ii) Over 81,000 species of fauna and 47,000 species of flora are found in our
iii)Of the estimated 47,000 species of flora 15,000 flowering species are endemic to
2 Attempt the classification of plants and animal species given by International
Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources(IUCN).Give suitable
examples of each.
Ans The different categories of existing plants and animal species based on the IUCN are
as followsi)
NORMAL SPECIES-Species whose population levels are in danger considered to
be normal for their survival such as cattle, sal ,pine, rodents etc
ii) VULNERABLE SPECIES-Species whose population has declined to levels from
where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative
factors continue to operate such as Blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin
iii)ENDANGERED SPECIES-Species which are in danger of extinction.Thesurvival
of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline in their
population continue to operate. The examples are black buck ,crocodile
Indian wild ass, sangai etc
iv) RARE SPECIES- Species with small population may move into the endangered
or vulnerable category if the negative factors effecting them continue to operate
.the examples are Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and
v)ENDEMIC SPECIES-These are species which are only found in some particular
areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers such as Andaman teal,
Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh
vi) EXTINCT SPECIES-These are species which are not found after searches of
known or likely areas where they may occur.These species may be extinct from
local area, region ,country, continent or the entire earth.Examples are the Asiatic
cheetah, pink head duck
3 When was ‘Project tiger’ launched? Write important features of this project.
Ans ‘Project Tiger’ was launched in 1973.
i) There are 27 tiger reserves in India covering an area of 37,761sq km
ii)Tiger conservation has been viewed not only as an effort to save endangered
species but with equal importance as a means of preserving biotypes off sizable
iii)Corbett National Park in Uttranchal,Sunderbans National Park in West
Bengal , Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam are some of the examples of the tiger
reserves in India
4 Differentiate between –Reserved forests and protected forests
These are maintained for the purpose of These forests are protected from
producing timber and other forest produce depletion
More than half of the total forest land has Almost one third of the total forest
been declared as reserved forest area is declared as protected forest
Madhya Pradesh,Jammu-Kashmir,Andhra Bihar, Punjab, Haryana,Himachal
Pradesh, Uttranchal,Kerala, Maharashatra Pradesh,Orissa,Rajasthan have
Tamilnadu and West Bengal have large bulk of their foretst under protected
under reserved forests forests
5 ‘The destruction of forest and wildlife is strongly co-related with the loss of
cultural diversity”Justify the statement with suitable facts.
AnsThe destruction of forest and wildlife has affected the livelihood of many
communities who are directly dependent on forests. They depend on forest for their
food,medicine,drink,livelihood culture and spirituality. In certain societies women are
involved in fuel collection,fodder for animals and water for their basic needs. Due to
large scale daforestation these forest products are not available to them and the life of
these people, especially women is largely aeffected.
Women have to go in search offood, water, fuel over long distances leaving their family
for long time resulting in social tensions.
It has also resulted in severe droughts and floods which has affected these communities
very badly. These people live inextreme poverty which is the direct result of the
environmental degradation
6Why do we need to conserve our forests and wildlife?
Ans i)Conservation preserves the ecology diversity and our life support system-water, air
And soil.
ii)It also preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of
species and breeding.For example, in agriculture we are still dependent on
traditional varities of crop.Fisheries too are heavily dependent on the maintenance
acquatic biodiversity
7Give some examples of flora and fauna conserved by people through their cultural
and religious practices.
AnsExamples of flora and fauna conserved by people through their cultural and religious
pratices are following
i)The Mundas and Santhals of Chhotanagpur region worship mahua and kadamba
ii)The tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the tamarind and the mango trees during
iii)Other trees like tulsi, peepal and banyan are also considered sacred.
iv) Troops of macaques and langurs around many temples are fed daily and treated as
a part of temple devotees
v) In and around Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan,herds of blackbuck,nilgai and peacock
can be seen as an integral part of the community and nobody harms them
8Write the steps taken by the government for the conservation of flora and fauna in
Ans The following steps have been taken by the government conservation of flora and
The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was enacted in 1972 .An all-India list of
protected species was also published.
Hunting of endangered species was banned and trading in wildlife was
ii)National parks,Wildlife sanctuaries andBird sanctuaries were established
iii)Special programmes like ‘Project Tiger’, ‘Project Rhino’ have been taken up to
conserve these species
iv)Under Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986 several hundered butterflies,moths, beetles
have been added to the list of protected species
v) In 1991, for the first time plants were also added to the list , starting with six
9What are the negative factors that cause depletion of flora and fauna in India?
Ans The negative factors responsible for depletion of flora and fauna in India arei)
During the colonial period due to the expansion of the railways,mining
scientific and commercial forestry and agriculture there was a huge loss of the
Indian forests
ii)Even after independence,agricultural expansion continued and between1951-1980
according to the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 sq km of forest area was
converted into agricultural land all over India
iii)Substantial parts of the tribal belts, especially in the north- eastern and the central
India, have been deforested by shifting cultivation, a type of ‘slash and burn’
iv) Large scale developmental projects like Narmada Sagar Project of Madhya
Pradesh would inundate 40,000 hectares of forest.
v)Mining is another important factor,mainly the Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal
is seriously threatened by dolomite mining.It has disturbed the natural habitat of
many species and migration route of animals,especially the great Indian Elephant.
vi)Many foresters and environmentalists hold the view that the greatest degrading
factors behind the depletionof forest resources are grazing and fuel wood collection
10Analyse the various factors responsible for the decline in India’s biodiversity
Ans The various factors responsible for the decline in India’s biodiversity are following
i)Habitat destruction
ii) Hunting
iv) Over-exploitation
v) Environmental pollution
vi) Poisoning
vii) Forest fires
viii)Unequal access
ix) Inequitable consumption of resources
x) Differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being
For example an average American consumes 40 times more resources than an
average Somalian.
The richest 5% of Indian society probably cause more ecological damage due to
The amount they consume than the poorest 25%.Rich people share minimum
responsibility for environmental well-being
11 Describe how communities have conserved and protected forest and wildlife in
Ans The communities have conserved forest and wildlife in the following waysi)
In Sariska tiger reserve.Rajasthan , villagers have fought against mining by
citing the Wildlife Protection Act
ii)The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have declared
1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhirodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’declaring their own set
of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting and are protecting the wildlife
against any outside encroachment.
iii) The famous ‘Chipko movement’ in the Himalayas has not only successfully
resisted deforestation in several areas but has also shown that community
afforestation with indigenous species can be enormously successful.
iv) Farmers and citizen’s group like Beej Bachao Andolan inTehri and Navdanya
have shown that adequate levels of diversified crop production without the use of
synthetic chemicals are possible and economically viable
v) The Joint Forest Mnagement(JFM)Programme is a good example of how local
communities were involved in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
The programme has been in formal existence since 1988 when the state of Orissa
passed the first resolution for joint forest management.JFM depends on the
formation of local institutions that undertake protection activities mostly on
degraded forest land managed by forest department.In return the members of these
communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like non timber forest products
and share in the timber harvested by ‘succesful protection’.

TERM I (2013-2014)
Q1.) Define the term ‘agriculture’
Ans- the science or practice of cultivating soil and rearing animals is known as
Q2.) What is called Jhumming cultivation in Madhya Pradesh ?
Ans- The jhumming cultivation in Madhya Pradesh is called ‘ Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’
Q3.) Name the states of India where intensive subsistence farming is practiced
Ans- With increasing population, the pressure on land is continuously increasing.
Therefore, in all the densely populated states of India intensive cultivation has become a
norm eg. in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.
Q4.)What is the main characteristic of commercial agriculture?
Ans- The main characteristic of commercial farming is the use of higher doses of modern
inputs like HYV seeds, commercial fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to
obtain higher productivity.
Q5.) Rice an example of a crop which may be commercial in one region and may provide
subsistence crop in another region.
Ans-Rrice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Orissa it is a subsistence
Q6.) What is meant by leguminous plants?
Ans- leguminous plants are those plants that help to restore the fertility of the soil as their
small nodes absorb nitrogen from the air and fix it into the soil. All pulses are
Q7.) What is sericulture?
Ans – the rearing of silk worms for the production of silk is called sericulture
Q8.) What is horticulture?
Ans- intensive cultivation of fruits, flowers and vegetables for the commercial purpose is
known as horticulture
Q9.) Name the short cropping season practiced in india. And name some crops grown in
this period.
Ans- Zaid is the season and watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder
crops are grown in this season.
Q10.) What is called as the ‘golden fiber’ of India? What is its importance?
Ans- Jute is called the golden fiber of India and it is used to make gunny bags, mats,
ropes and yarns
Q11.) Name the important millets grown in this area.
Ans- Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown In India.
Q12.) Why is there enormous pressure on agricultural land in intensive subsistence
Ans- The right of inheritance leading to the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land – holding size uneconomical. The famers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative sources of livelihood.
Thus there is enormous pressure on agricultural land.
Q13.) Which is the most classic example of plantation crop grown in India? Name its 2
major producing states.
Ans- tea is the most classic example of plantation crop grown in India. Its 2 major
planting states are Assam and West Bengal.
Q14.) Which variety of coffee is mainly grown in India?
Ans- Arabica coffee is mainly grown in India.
Q15.) What is the other name for white revolution?
Ans- Operation flood is the other name for white revolution.
Q16.) Name the 4 major fiber crops grown in India.
And- Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the 4 major fiber crops in India. The first 3
are derived from the crops grown in the soil, the latter is obtained from cocoons of the
silkworms fed on green leaves specially mulberry
Q17.) What is India’s rank among the worlds rubber production?
Ans- India is ranked 5th among the worlds rubber production
Q18.) What was the main focus of the first 5 year plan for agriculture?
Ans- Land reforms was the main focus of the first 5 year plan for agriculture.
Q19.) What is the position of India among the world’s rice producer?
Ans – our country is the 3nd largest producer of rice in the world after china.
Q20.) Name the cereal crop of India which is used both as a food and fodder
Ans- Maize is the cereal crop of India which is used both as a food and fodder.
Q21.) How is the agriculture important for Indian economy?
Ans- India is an agriculturally important country.
Employment – 2/3 of the population is engaged in agricultural activities so it is
the main source for livelihood.
Food security – agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food
that we consume.
Raw material – it also provides raw material for various industries eg. paper
industry, textile industry.
Export- some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices etc are also exported
and our country earns a good amount of income through it.
Q23.) Write differences b/w rabi and kharif season
1.)Rabi crops are sown in winter 1.) Kharif crops are grown with the
From October to December and onset of monsoon in different
Harvested in summer from April and June. Parts of the country and these
Are harvested in September
And October
2.) Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, 2.)Important crops grown during
barley, peas, gram and mustard this season are paddy, maize,
jowar, bajra, tur, mong, urad,
cotton, jute, groundnut and
3.) States from the north and north –western parts 3.) Important rice growing region
such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, are Assam, Coastal region of
Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Uttranchal Orrisa, Andhra Pradesh,
are important for the production of wheat and Tamil Nadu, Kerela,
other rabi crops. Maharashtra, Utter Pradesh
and Bihar

Rice 25c 100cm alluvial
Requires high
humidity, in areas
of less rainfall
grown with the
help of irrigation
Assam ,West Bengal,
coastal areas of Orissa
,Andhra Pradesh,
Tamilnadu ,Kerala and
Maharashtra, parts of
Uttar Pradesh and
India is the second
largest producer
of rice in the
world after China
Wheat (Rabi
Cool growing
season and a
bright sunshine at
the time of
50 - 75 cm
Black and
Loamy Soil
• Two important
wheat growing zones
are the Ganga and
Satluj plains in the
north west and black
soil regions of the
• Major States –
Punjab, Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh, Bihar,
Rajasthan and parts of
Madhya Pradesh.
• Second most
important cereal
• Main food crop
in North and
North Western
part of India.
Maize (Kharif
21˚C - 27˚C -
Old Alluvial
Use of HYVs,
fertilizers and
irrigation have
contributed to the
Karnataka, Uttar
Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra
Pradesh and Madhya
• Crop used as
both food and
fodder.• In Bihar,
it is grown in Rabi
season as well.
Sugarcane 21˚C - 27˚C
75 - 100 cm and
needed in low
rainfall areas
Variety of
Tropical as well as
Sub-Tropical Crop
and also needs
manual labour
Uttar Pradesh,
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu,
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar,
Punjab and Haryana.
• Second largest
producer after
• Main source of
sugar, gur,
khandsari and
Tea (Plantation
20˚C - 30˚C
150 - 300 cm and
needs frequent
showers evenly
distributed for
the tender
growth of the
Deep and
fertile well
drained soil,
rich in
humus and
Labor Intensive and
Warm & Moist frost
free climate. It also
needs abundant,
cheap and skilled
Assam, hills of
Darjeeling and
Jalpaiguri district in
West Bengal, Tamil
Nadu, Kerala are major
producers. Others also
include Himachal
Pradesh, Uttaranchal,
Meghalaya, Andhra
Pradesh and Tripura
India is the leading
producer and
exporter in the
(Plantation Crop)
15˚C - 28˚C 150 - 200 cm - -
Initially introduced on
Baba Budan Hills even
today cultivation is
confined to Nilgiri in
Karnataka, Kerala and
Tamil Nadu
• Produces 4 % of
the world’s coffee.
• Arabica – Good
quality coffee,
great demand in
(Plantation Crop)
& (Equatorial
25˚C and Moist
and humid
200 cm -
Tropical and Sub
Tropical Areas
Kerala, Tamil Nadu,
Karnataka and
Andaman & Nicobar
Islands, Garo hills of
• Rubber is an
industrial raw
material.• Ranks
fifth among the
World’s Natural
Rubber producers.
Cotton (Kharif
High temperature
and bright
sunshine for its
growth are
Light rainfall or
Black Soil
210 frost free days
and requires 6 - 8
months to mature
Maharasthra, Gujarat,
Madhya Pradesh,
Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,
Punjab, Haryana and
Uttar Pradesh
Main raw
material for
cotton textile
India is the third
largest producer
of cotton in the
High temperature
during growth
fertile soils
in the flood
West Bengal, Bihar,
Assam, Orissa and
• Known as the
golden fibre
• Used for making
gunny bags, mats,
ropes, yarn,
carpets and other
Pulses (Tur, Urad,
Moong are Kharif
Crops. Masur,
Peas, Gram are
Rabi Crops.)
Need less
moisture and
survive even in
dry conditions
- -
Madhya Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Maharashtra and
India is the
largest producer
as well as
consumer of
pulses in the
world.• These are
the major source
of protein in the
vegetarian diet.•
Major pulses
grown in India are
Tur (Arhar), Urad,
Moong, Masur,
Peas and Gram.•
Leguminous crop
(except ARHAR) –
Help in restoring
fertility by fixing
Nitrogen from the
air. Therefore
grown in rotation
with other crops.
Oilseeds - - - -
• Groundnut is a Kharif
Crop and accounts for
about 50 % of major
oilseeds produced in
India. Andhra Pradesh
is the leading producer
followed by Tamil
Nadu, Karnataka,
Gujarat, Maharasthra.•
Linseed and Mustard
are Rabi Crops.•
Sesamum is a Kharif
Crop in north and Rabi
Crop in South.• Castor
Seed is grown both as
Kharif and Rabi season
India is the
largest producer
of oilseeds in the
world.• Covers 12
% of the total
cropped area of
the country.•
Main oilseeds
produced in India
are – groundnut,
mustard, coconut,
soyabean, castor
seeds, cotton
seeds, linseed and
sunflower.• Used
as a medium of
cooking.• Used as
a raw material in
the production of
soap, cosmetics
and ointments.•
After extracting oil
residue is used as
cattle fodder.
Q24.) Distinguish between subsistence and commercial agriculture
Ans= The differences are :-
1.) Subsistence agriculture is practiced on 1.) commercial agriculture is done on
small patches of land with the help of large scale with the use of huge
primitive tools like doe, hoe and digging doses of modern inputs eg- HYV
sticks. Seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
2.) Farmers and his family produce cereals
for themselves and for the local market. 2.) crops are grown with a view to 3 3) It is labour intensive where most of
the export them to other countries. Export them to other counteries
3)It is labour intensive where most of the
activities are done by family and community 3) It is capital intensive where much
labour of the work is done by machines
4)It is practiced in thickly populated areas 4) It is practiced in sparsely populated
5) Wheat, maize, millets etc are raised 5) Cotton, jute,coffee etc are raised
Q25.) Write important features of plantation agriculture?
Ans= Important features of plantation agriculture :-
Plantation is a type of commercial farming. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area
The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry plantation cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs,
with the help of migrant laborers.
All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries. Since the production is mainly for markets, a well developed
network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries and markets play an important
role in the development of plantations.
In India tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane and banana etc. are important plantation crops.
Q 26.) Explain the technological and institutional reforms introduced by the government to improve the agricultural production in
Ans = In the 1980’s and 1990’s a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and
technical reforms
Technological reforms :-
Highyielding and early maturing seeds are developed. They are now being increasingly used to raise productivity.
Chemical fertilizers are being used on a large scale to increases farm yields and productivity. They are now being
supplemented by bio fertilizers which greatly add to the fertility of the soil.
Irrigation methods- the flooding of water is now being replaced by drip- irrigation and the use of sprinklers.
The water pump replaced the Persian wheel, the plough by tiller and harrow drawn by the tractor, the bullock cart by truck
Institutional reforms :-
LAND REFORMS – it was the main focus of our ‘first five year plan’. The right of inheritance had already lead to fragmentation
of land holidays necessitating consolidation of land holdings.
a) Consolidation of land holiding - the government took the step of promoting consolidation of small and scattered
holdings through chakbandi. The larger plots have become economically more productive. They save farmer’s time,
money and energy.
b) Abolition of zamindari – zamindari system was abolished. Farmers became land owners. Earlier cultivated land was
owned by the zamindars who themselves did not cultivate the land, instead they exploited the actual cultivators. On
becoming the owners of the land, the peasants took cultivation seriously. Agriculture production started increasing.
Provision for crop insurance – provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire, and disease was
another step to provide protection to the farmers against losses caused by these calamities.
Loan facilities– grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower
rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.
Special bulletins and agricultural programme – special weather bulletins and agricultural programme for farmers
were introduced on the radio and TV.
Minimum support price – the government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement
prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middle men.
OTHER SCHEMES – kisan credit card, personal accident insurance scheme are some other schemes introduced by the government of
India for the benefit of farmers.
Q 27.) What are the concerted efforts made by the government of India to modernize agriculture?
Ans- Considering the importance of agriculture in India, the government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture:-
Establishment of Indian council of agricultural research and agricultural universities.
Providing veterinary services and animal breeding centers
Horticulture development.
Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast were given priority for improving Indian
Apart from this, improving the rural infrastructure was considered essential for the same.
Q28.) Why are farmers in India withdrawing their investment from agriculture?
Ans- Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture for the following reasons:-
Today, Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition
Our government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in agriculture sector particularly in irrigation, power,
rural roads, market and mechanization.
Subsidy on fertilizer is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
Moreover, reduction in import duties on agriculture products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country.
Q29.) Write short note on horticulture.
Ans- India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits. India
is well known for:-
Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
Oranges of kerela,Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
Lichi and guava of Utter Pradesh and Bihar.
Pineapples of Meghalaya.
Grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra
Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
There is a great demand of these the world over. India produces about 13% of the world’s vegetable. It is an important producer of
pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.

TERM-I (2013-2014)
Q1 How is fresh water obtained?
Ans Fresh water is mainly obtained from surface-runoff and ground water.
Q2 How the fresh water becomes a renewable resource?
Ans Water is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle .
Q3 Why is the availability of water resources varies and time due to the variation in
seasonal and annual precepitation. over space and time?
Ans The availability of water resources varies over space
Q4 Why does an area suffer from water scarcity although water is available in ample
amount to meets the needs of people?
Ans Even if there is ample amount of water to meet the needs of the people much of it
may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes chemicals , and, pesticides fertilizers
used in agriculture, thus making it hazardous for human use.
Q5 What has happened to India’s rivers especially the smaller ones?
Ans India’s rivers especially the smaller ones are turning into toxic streams due to
population growth, agricultural modernization, urbanization and industrialization.
Q6 Why should we conserve water resource?
Ans We need to conserve water resource-
To safeguard ourselves from health hazards
To ensure food security
To continue our livelihoods
For productive activities
To prevent degradation of our natural ecosystems
Q7When was Bhopal lake built?
Ans Bhopal lake was built in 11th century.
Q8What is a dam?
Ans A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow
,often creating a reservoir ,lake or impoundment. Dam refers to a reservoir rather than
Q9 Attempt the classification of dams on the basis of material used and height.
Ans Dams are classified according to material used and intended purpose or height—
(A)On the basis of structure and the material used dams are classified-
(a)Timber dams (b)Embankment dams (c) Masonary dams
There are many subtypes of these dams
B) On the basis of height-
(a)Low dams (b) Medium dams (c) High dams
Q10 Who proclaimed the dams as the ‘temples of modern India and why?
Ans Jawahar Lal Nehru proudly proclaimed the dams as ‘temples of modern India’, the
main reason being that it would integrate development of agriculture and the village
economy with rapid industrialization and growth of the urban economy.
Q11 Differentiate between traditional dams and multi purpose river valley dams.
Ans Traditional dams were built to impound rivers and rainwater that could be used later
to irrigate agricultural fields.
Today, dams are built not just for irrigation but for electricity generation, water supply
for domestic and industrial uses ,flood control ,recreation ,inland navigation ,and fish
breeding. For example, Bhakhra Nangal project water is used for hydel power production
as well as for irrigation.
Q12 What is water scarcity?
Ans According to Falken Mark, a Swedish expert, water stress occurs when water
availability is less than 1000 cubic meter per person per day.
Q13Explain the various causes of water scarcity?
What is the quantitative aspect of water scarcity?
Ans(a)Water scarcity may be the outcome of large and growing population and
consequent greater demands for water and unequal access to it.
A large population means more water not only for domestic use but also to
produce more food .Hence ,to facilitate higher food- grain production ,water
resources are being over exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry season
Most farmers have their own wells and tube-wells in their farms for irrigation to increase
their produce. But it may lead to falling of ground water levels adversely affecting water
availability and food security of the people.
Post-Independence Period
(b)Intensive industrialization is exerting pressure on existing fresh water
resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to
run them. Much of this energy comes from hydro-electric power. Today, hydroelectricity
contributes approximately 22 % of the total electricity produced.
(c)Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban-life
styles have not only added to water and energy requirements but have further
aggravated the problem. Most of these have their own ground water pumping
devices to meet their water needs. .Water resources are being over-exploited and
have caused their depletion in several of these cities.
Q14Discuss the problems associated with multipurpose river valley projects.
Ans The problems associated with multipurpose projects and large dams are following-
Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow
And excessive sedimentations at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier stream
beds and poorer habitats for the river’s acquatic life. Dams also fragment rivers making it
difficult for acquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning.
The reservoirs that are created on the flood plains also submerge the existing vegetation
and soil leading to its decomposition over a period of time.
Multipurpose projects and large dams have also been the cause of many new social
movements like the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan ’and the’ Tehri Dam Andolan’
.Resistance to these projects have primarily been due to the large scale displacement of
local communities Local people often have to give their land, livelihood and their meagre
access to and control over resources for the greater good of nation.
Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to
water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like
salinisation of the soil. At the same time it has changed the social landscape,i.e.increasing
the social gap between the richer landoweners and the landless poor.
Dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses from the same water
resources. In Gujarat, the Sabarmati –basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a
riot over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas ,particularly during
droughts. Inter-state water disputes are also becoming common with regard to sharing the
costs and benefits of the multipurpose projects e.g.objections raised by Karnataka and
Andhra Pradesh government regarding the Krishna –Godavari water.
Ironically the dams that were constructed to control floods have rather triggered
floods,due to sedimentation in the reservoir .Moreover ,the big dams have mostly been
unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall.In 2006 release of
water from dams during heavy rainfall aggravated the flood situation in Maharashtra and
Gujarat.The floods have also caused extensive soil erosion.
Regulating and damming of rivers cause poor sediment flow and sedimentation at the
bottom of the reservoir, which means that the flood plains were deprived of silt ,a
natural fertilizer,further adding on to the problem of land degradation.
It was also observed that the multipurpose projects induced earthquakes, caused water
borne diseases and pests and pollution resulting from excessive use of water.
Q15 What was considered as viable alternative to the multipurpose projects and why?
Ans Water harvesting system was considered as a viable alternative to the
multipurpose projects because of –
The disadvantages and rising resistance against the multipurpose projects
Water harvesting system is considered safe both socio- economically and
Q16 Discuss how rainwater harvesting is carried out in the semi-arid regions of
Ans In Rajasthan rainwater harvesting is carried out in the following ways-
In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rainfed storage
structures that allowed the rainwater to stand and moisten the soil like the ‘Khadins’ in
Jaisalmer and Johads in other parts of Rajasthan.
In the arid and semi-arid regions of, particulary in Bikaner , Phalodi and Barmer
,almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing
drinking drinking water.
The tankas could be as large as a big room;one house in Phalodi had a tank that
was 6.1 mts deep, 4.27mt long, 2.44mt wide.
The tankas were part of the well developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system
and were built inside the main house or in the courtyard They were connected to
to the sloping roof of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the roofs would
travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground tankas .The first spell
of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes .The
rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected.
The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an
extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.
Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tankas to beat the
summer heat as it would keep the room cool.
Q17What is ‘Palar Pani’?
Ans Rainwater is commonly referred as ‘Palar Pani’ in Rajasthan. It is considered the
purest form of natural water.
Q18 Why the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is declining in western part of
Ans The practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline in western Rajasthan as
plenty of water is available due to the perennial Rajasthan canal.
Q19What are Guls or Kuls?
Ans In hilly and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels for agriculture
known as Guls or Kuls in western Himalayas.
Q20 Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are
being carried out to conserve and store water?
Ans In many parts of rural and urban India, rooftop rainwater harvesting is being
successfully adapted to store and conserve water-
In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have
installed in their household’s rooftop, rainwater harvesting system to meet their
water needs.
Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the
rare distinction of being rich in rainwater.
Gendathur receives an annual precipitation of 1,000mm and with 80% percent of
collection efficiency and of about 10 filling, every house can collect and use about
50,000 liters of water. From 20 houses, the net amount of rainwater harvested
annually amounts to 1,00,0000 liters.
Rooftop rainwater harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong,
It is interesting because Cherapunji and Mawsynram situated at a distance of 55
km from Shillong receives the highest rainfall in the world, the state capital
Shillong faces acute shortage of water.
Nearly every household in the city has a rooftop rainwater harvesting structure.
Nearly 15-25% of the total water requirement of the household comes from
rooftop water harvesting.
It is the first and the only state in India which has made rooftop rainwater
harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state. There are legal
provisions to punish the defaulters.
Q22 Explain the ‘Bamboo Drip Irrigation System’
Ans In Meghalaya, a 200 years old system of tapping stream and spring water by
using bamboo pipes ,.About is prevalent 18-20 liters of water enters the bamboo
pipe system, gets transported over hundreds of meters, and finally reduces to 20-
80 drops per minute at the site of plant.
Bamboo pipes are used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower
reaches by gravity.
The channel sections, made of bamboo, divert water to the site where it is
distributed into branches, again made and laid with different form bamboo pipes.
The flow of water into the pipes is controlled by manipulating the pipe positions.
Reduced channel sections and diversion units are used at the last stage of water
applications. The last channel section enables water to be dropped near the roots
of the plant.